hared memory multithreading is a popular approach to parallel programming, but also fiendishly hard to get right. We present Liquid Effects, a type-and-effect system based on refinement types which allows for fine-grained, low-level, shared memory multithreading while statically guaranteeing that a program is deterministic. Liquid Effects records the effect of an expression as a formula in first-order logic, making our type-and-effect system highly expressive. Further, effects like Read and Write are recorded in Liquid Effects as ordinary uninterpreted predicates, leaving the effect system open to extension by the user. By building our system as an extension to an existing dependent refinement type system, our system gains precise value- and branch-sensitive reasoning about effects. Finally, our system exploits the Liquid Types refinement type inference technique to automatically infer refinement types and effects. We have implemented our type-and-effect checking techniques in CSOLVE, a refinement type inference system for C programs. We demonstrate how CSOLVE uses Liquid Effects to prove the determinism of a variety of benchmarks
In the Proceedings of the 34th ACM Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation, 2012. (PLDI 2012).